Mining Ore Crushing Equipment Expert

Henan Province, China

Zhengzhou West Industrial Zone,451200

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Crusher is used in the beginning of many production lines, plays an important role, mainly for all kinds of stone crushing operations, according to the principle of crushing and product particle size is different, and is divided into many models, according to the crushing needs of different users, you can choose different models of crusher for production.

Crusher types and performance characteristics

According to the different performance of its equipment, different crushers have their own characteristics, suitable for different stone. Commonly used crushing equipment are jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, vertical shaft impact crusher, hammer crusher, etc., can complete the crushing task of different requirements, the choice of crusher model mainly depends on the nature of the material and production requirements. In order to choose the crusher suitable for their own use in many types and many manufacturers, it is necessary to understand their own needs at the same time, understand the various classification of the crusher and their respective advantages and disadvantages, through the analysis of the types and advantages and disadvantages of the crusher, choose the right for their own. The following is a brief introduction to several commonly used crusher types and their advantages and disadvantages.

1. Jaw crusher: bending extrusion type

The jaw crusher is often used in the primary crushing operation of the stone crushing production line and the sand making production line. The feed particle size can reach about 1500㎜ and the output is 1-1200t/h.

Working principle: Jaw crusher is the use of two jaw plate on the material extrusion and bending action, coarse or crushed various hardness of material crushing machinery, the crushing mechanism is composed of fixed jaw plate and movable jaw plate, when the two jaw plates near the material is broken, when the two jaw plates leave less than the discharge port of the material by the bottom discharge, its crushing action is intermittent.

Advantages: The V-shaped crushing chamber and the working principle of extrusion make the jaw fracture have the characteristics of high crushing force and large crushing ratio; Flywheel design enhances the stability of the equipment, making the equipment run more smoothly; The crushing chamber is deep without dead zone, the one-time processing capacity is large, and the production capacity is strong; Moreover, the entire structure of the broken jaw is simple and compact, easy to install and maintain, and the wearing parts such as lining plates are also wear-resistant and durable.

Disadvantages: there is an idling stroke, which increases the non-productive power consumption. The crushing method of jaw breaking is actually more rough, and the quality requirements of the foundation are high. It is not suitable for crushing soft materials and materials with water content greater than 10%, otherwise the jaw plate is easy to be filled with material, which will affect the production efficiency and even blockage.

2. Cone crusher: laminated crushing type

Cone crusher is only suitable for crushing or fine crushing operation of secondary crushing machinery, crushing capacity is strong, high material utilization rate, hard, medium hardness above all kinds of ore crushing has a good effect, divided into five types: Spring cone, compound cone, full hydraulic, multi-cylinder hydraulic and single-cylinder hydraulic can be combined with jaw breaking to form a crushing production line for the production of sand and stone. Its feed particle size can reach 500㎜ and the output is about 12-2000t/h.

Working principle: It adopts lamination crushing, the rotation of the motor through the belt pulley or coupling, the cone crusher drive shaft and the cone of the cone crusher in the eccentric sleeve forced around a fixed point for pendulum movement; Thus, the cone crushing wall is sometimes close to and sometimes away from the surface of the mortar wall fixed on the adjusting sleeve, so that the ore is constantly impacted, squeezed and bent in the crushing chamber to achieve the crushing of the ore.

Advantages: suitable for crushing sheet material, uniform particle size; The cone breaking adopts hydraulic device and high manganese steel wearing parts, which has the advantages of strong compression resistance, large crushing force and easy maintenance. Unique hydraulic device, plays the role of cavity cleaning and protection equipment, can realize automatic discharge, adjust the size of the discharge port, can start the cavity cleaning function when the foreign body enters, the foreign body can be discharged, smooth production, safe and convenient, the equipment has a high degree of automation, high production efficiency, low unit power consumption, stable work, low energy consumption.

Disadvantages: the structure is complex, the cost is high, the maintenance is difficult, the fuselage is high, so that the construction cost of the plant and the basic structure increases; It is not suitable for crushing wet and viscous ore, nor for processing soft ore, and it is easy to have too much stone powder, and the overall cost of cone breaking is higher.

Operation suggestions: The uniformity of the discharge particle size of the medium and fine crushing operation is generally higher than that of the coarse crushing operation. Therefore, a parallel zone must be set in the lower part of the crushing chamber, and the rotation speed of the crushing cone must be accelerated so that the material is squeezed more than once in the parallel zone; The crushing of medium and fine crushing operation is larger than that of coarse crushing operation, so the loose volume after crushing will be greatly increased. In order to prevent the crushing cavity from causing obstruction, the total discharge section must be increased by increasing the diameter of the lower part of the crushing cone on the premise of not increasing the discharge port to ensure the required discharge particle size. The discharge port of the cone crusher is small, and the non-broken material mixed with the feed is more likely to cause accidents, and because of the strict requirements of the discharge particle size of the medium and fine crushing operation, the discharge port must be adjusted in time after the liner wear, so the insurance and adjustment device of the cone crusher is more necessary than the coarse crushing operation.

3. Hammer crusher: impact + impact crushing type

Hammer crusher used for crushing a variety of hard and abrasive weak materials, the compressive strength of the material does not exceed 200MPa, the moisture content is less than 15%, can be dry, wet two forms of crushing, its feed particle size can reach a maximum of about 1 meter, the output in 300-3000t/h, the equipment can adjust the grate gap according to user requirements, change the discharge particle size, To meet the different needs of different users.

How it works: Hammer crusher is a crusher that uses the high-speed impact of the hammer head to break and finely break the material. The motor drives the rotor to rotate at a high speed in the crushing chamber, and the material is fed from the upper part of the feed port to the human-machine, which is crushed by the hammer’s impact, impact, shear and grinding at a high speed. The sieve plate is arranged at the lower part of the rotor. High speed to the body of the frame baffle, screen bar, at the same time the material impact with each other, the crushed material is less than the size of the sieve through the sieve plate discharge, larger than the size of the sieve sieve to remain in the sieve plate continue to be hit by the hammer and grinding, and finally through the sieve plate discharged out of the machine, so as to obtain the required size of the product.

Advantages: can be formed once, no need for secondary crushing molding; Finished materials can be adjusted according to the needs of coarse, medium, fine, various specifications; High production capacity; The crushing ratio is large; Low power consumption; Simple mechanical structure; Compact and lightweight; Low investment cost; Easy to manage.

Disadvantages: hammer and grate wear fast, metal consumption is large, maintenance time is longer.

4. Impact crusher: impact + impact crushing type

The impact crusher is a medium crushing equipment, compared with the hammer crusher, the impact crusher has a larger crushing ratio and can make full use of the high-speed impact energy of the entire rotor. However, because the plate hammer is very easy to wear, it is also limited in the application of hard material crushing, usually used for coarse crushed, medium crushed or fine crushed limestone, dolomite, and other brittle materials below the medium hard, often with the jaw crusher operation, the role in the crushing processing of the sand production line, the feed particle size can reach about 800㎜, and the output is 150-800t/h.

There are two main reasons why the impact crusher is popular with users, one is that the price of similar products is cheaper, and the other is that it uses the impact crushing method, broken along the grain of the ore, and the particle size of the product produced is more cube, and the market is better.

Working principle: The impact crusher is the use of the high-speed impact of the plate hammer and the rebound of the counter plate, so that the material is broken by repeated impact. The plate hammer is fixed on a high-speed rotating rotor, and several counterattack plates are arranged along the crushing chamber at different angles. Driven by the motor, the rotor rotates at a high speed, and when the material enters the plate hammer action zone, it is struck and broken with the plate hammer on the rotor, and then it is thrown to the counter device to break again, and then springs back from the counter liner to the plate hammer action zone to break again. This process is repeated, and the material enters the first, second and third counter cavities from large to small, and breaks repeatedly until the material is broken to the required particle size. Discharge through the discharge port.

Advantages: high crushing efficiency, complete discharge grain type, multi-angle multi-edge, good quality; The clearance is adjustable, which can effectively control the discharge particle size, and the user can adjust and control the finished product particle size by himself to achieve the production of a variety of finished product specifications; And the equipment itself has good sealing, coupled with the principle of crushing, the operation produces less stone powder, and the environmental protection type is good; Simple structure, easy maintenance, no significant imbalance vibration during work, no bulky foundation; Large feed port, deep crushing chamber, large production capacity, low power consumption, wide range of suitable materials; The impact plate and the plate hammer have strong wear resistance.

Disadvantages: the hammer and the counter plate are particularly easy to wear, and the replacement is more frequent, especially the broken hard ore, the wear is more serious, and the need to be replaced often; Poor adaptability to materials containing water and mud, it is extremely difficult to remove after blockage.

5. Vertical shaft impact crusher

Vertical shaft impact crusher is a fine crushing equipment, suitable for the crushing and shaping of soft or medium hard and extremely hard materials, higher than other types of crusher output efficiency, compared with the previous hammer crusher, roll crusher and other equipment has a high sand rate, good finished particle shape characteristics.

How it works: When the vertical shaft impact crusher works, the material is sent to the center of the rotor from the top central charging cylinder, transported to each discharge chamber by the dividing pile, directly into the high-speed rotating impeller, under the action of centrifugal force, with another part of the umbrella form in the impeller around the material impact, the material is broken due to repeated eddy current impact and friction between the impeller and the shell. The closed-circuit crushing cycle is formed, and finally, the material is controlled by screening to reach the required particle size of the finished material.

Advantages: The optimized crushing chamber can increase the amount of material passing by 30%, and the equipment has the functions of sand making and shaping; Thin oil type and grease type modular design, so that users can choose the lubrication method according to the actual situation, to achieve the overall interchange, easy to operate; Optional center or peripheral two feeding methods, flexible adjustment, in practical applications can avoid too long adjustment time, improve work efficiency; Perimeter protection can be turned up and down, extending the service life of the combined throwing head only needs to replace worn parts, reducing the cost of use by 30%; The self-circulation of the airflow in the vortex chamber, coupled with the pulse dust collector and the noise eliminator, realize the green environmental protection sand making.

Disadvantages: When the water contained in the material is large, it is easy to adhere to the crushing chamber, which is easy to cause blockage during the discharge and transportation process, resulting in a decrease in sand making capacity; Due to the impact crushing principle, its striking parts, such as the plate hammer, the throwing head, the surrounding protection plate, the lining plate, etc., wear quickly in use, which will increase the replacement frequency and cost of parts.

Roll crusher

Roller crusher is usually divided into single roll, double roll and multi-roll crusher according to the number of rollers, according to the shape of the roller surface can be divided into smooth roll crusher, trough crusher, tooth surface crusher and other three types, suitable for coarse, medium or fine crushed coal, limestone, cement clinker and feldspar and other hard materials below.

Working principle: Roller crusher is the use of friction on the roll surface to bite the material into the crushing area, so that it can withstand extrusion or splitting and crushing machinery, when used for coarse crushing or need to increase the crushing ratio, often make teeth or grooves on the roll surface to increase the splitting effect. When the adjusting bolt pulls up the wedge block, the wedge block pushes the moving roller away from the fixed wheel, that is, the gap between the two rollers becomes larger, and the discharge particle size becomes larger. When the wedge block falls, the gap between the two wheels becomes smaller, and the discharge particle size becomes smaller accordingly. The gasket device adjusts the discharge particle size by increasing or reducing the number or thickness of gaskets. The discharge particle size is smaller, and the driving mechanism is composed of two motors, which are driven to the pulley through the triangle belt, dragging the roller and rotating in reverse. When the material is crushed, the material is crushed through the roller from the feed port, and the finished product is discharged from the bottom of the chassis.

Advantages: simple structure, compact and portable, reliable work, low price, easy maintenance, uniform particle size of broken products, small over-crushing, fine particle size of products.

Disadvantages: low processing capacity, can not break large materials, nor should it break hard materials, usually used for medium and fine crushing of medium and soft materials.

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